What the Eyes Don’t See: Everyone Should Read!

Chemical Symbol for Lead

What the Eyes Don’t See is a book written by Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha about the Flint, Michigan water crisis. As a pediatrician and Community Health Residency Director at Hurley Center in Flint. Dr. Mona (as her tiny patients refer to her) learned from a high school friend, an environmental scientist, that she should be concerned about lead in the water in Flint. She was surprised. The Flint authorities told everyone the water was fine to drink. Like most of us, she expected the people “in charge” to protect the public. Isn’t that what government is for? But, Dr. Mona’s friend said no — it is not safe. That began an 8-month odyssey that grew from a conversation between two friends to a consortium of doctors, scientists, activists, and  parents who exposed the cover up and righted a huge wrong.  Dr. Mona knew all too well what lead exposure does to developing children.

I highly recommend this book for its depth, its fluid story development, and its educational value for every adult in the U.S. and for the sake of every child. I read it over two days, hardly able to put it down. See Dr. Mona on the web.

Exposure to high lead levels as infants and children can cause irreversible damage to their brains and other organs. Gray matter in the brain is eroded so that the child has problems with attention and impulse control; it affects white matter in nerves that carry signals in the brain; it is suspected of having epigenetic effects – changing a child’s DNA which means it can be passed to future generations. People exposed to lead as children show higher rates of crime and addiction as teens and adults. Lead in the body can erode eyesight and affect other organs.

Dr. Mona encapsulates the story in 1) the political policy — austerity; 2) the socioeconomic history of the city and those most affected by the lead poisoning — an environmental injustice; 3) the U.S. practice of requiring the victim to prove harm first rather than using the Precautionary Principle: when danger is suspected, move with caution, using science to understand the risk.

In 2014, due to Flint’s bankruptcy, the state assigned an emergency manager who alone made the decision to switch the city’s water supply from the more expensive fresh water of the Great Lakes to river water.  The Great Lakes water was treated with a corrosion control to prevent leaching of chemicals like lead into the drinking water. The new manager decided to not use corrosion-control treatment of the river water as a way to save money–his primary mandate.

Dr. Mona points out that the city lost democracy with the assignment of an emergency manager appointed by the state.  The city was in free-fall economically not by the fault of any of the families and small businesses that were struggling economically in Flint. The wealthy either moved out, or changed the housing and voting districts to wall themselves off from the poorer workers and neighborhoods. The people were essentially punished for being poor. Extreme austerity was what they got, a short-sighted, unjust policy.

When Dr. Mona and her team began to contact authorities to alert them and request data, they were met by silence or by bureaucratic barriers. They had to “prove” the harm done to children before the authorities would agree there was a problem. To protect industry, the U.S. requires harm to be proved first unlike all other nations in the world. Instead, Dr. Mona points to the Precautionary Principle.

Everyone in America knows that lead is dangerous, and officials in government know that corrosion-control in municipal water quality prevents leaching of lead. So why should she need to prove anything. Shouldn’t the authorities move with caution first to protect the possible harming of children? Again, in policy, money came before the kids.

Dr. Mona worked with data experts, scientists, policy makers, and many others to pull data, analyze it with rigorous methods to be sure the increase in lead that they were seeing was true. It was far worse than they expected. Thousands of children in the prime months and years of their development were impacted. But, just as you can’t see lead in the water, you won’t see the changes in the children for months or even years. So, one has to be cautious, right?

This book is something more. It is the story of an immigrant family who fled a brutal dictator (Saddam Hussein) to live in the U.S. Mona and her brother were natural born Americans but her parents brought the traditions of their country and lives to their home in America. I was fascinated to learn more about the history of Iraq. Instead of the war-torn, fearful images I have only seen through U.S. media during the Iraq war, I learned about the Iraq Republic before the revolution that installed Saddam. Women had similar freedoms to American women today. It’s hard to imagine that such a complete transformation of the country has happened in such a short period of time and a warning to our country to watch for destabilizing influences on our democracy. Mona describes her parents and grandparents, the food, language, and story traditions from Iraq that are lovely and that I related to my own familial traditions. Her family members, each in their own way, emulated qualities of citizenship and justice that Mona clearly inherited.

Dr. Mona opened the world a little more to me. This perspective of the immigrant is vital to understanding other nations and our role in the world. I kept thinking as I was reading, “Thank God we let her family immigrate to America. Look what she and her family have contributed to the welfare of our country!”

Landing in the America that made it possible for Dr. Mona to be a doctor, she began to see that there were “two Americas” – the one that worked for her and her brother, and the one that doesn’t work for most of the residents of Flint. The families most affected by the poisoned water were the same ones who could not pay for bottled or filtered water. Children impacted by the poisoned water were already dealing with major stressors such as malnutrition, neglect or abuse–all the impacts of poverty.  Dr. Mona explains what we know about the impacts of Adverse Childhood Experiences, of A.C.E’s which cause such ailments as chronic asthma. Dr. Mona teaches the reader about Community Medicine that looks not just at physical health but also zip code–the socio-economic correlates of health. The book is annotated and provides references for professionals and parents in the back of the book. It contains an excellent summary of Flint’s history from the heyday of GM’s dominance to the disenfranchised neighborhoods of today. This gives readers a setting in which to understand how and why the story unfolded as it did.

Dr. Mona works in a public hospital so she sees and cares for the poorest residents. Her amazing story is about the indignation of one doctor who would not stop until she exposed the lead levels of kids she saw at Hurley. She tells the story of the coalition of friends, fellow professionals, legislators, and parents who managed in only 8-months to expose the truth. Ultimately, the governor mandated the switch back to fresh, Great Lakes, corrosion-treated water. It was a victory but it is also powerful implication of America’s environmental injustices. And it is an ongoing effort to stay with all the kids affected to make their futures as bright as possible.

Direction for Communities Across the Country: As Dr. Mona travels around the country to introduce the book, she is teaching all of us about community resilience and how coming together we can provide buffers to poverty and neglect that will help stabilize children, and how we can all work together to provide kids in low-income neighborhoods with books, with mentors., with education, and a social fabric that helps each child and parent be more resilient to stressors.

Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha is just one child of immigrant parents who has become an amazing advocate for American children who is also showing our nation where we must re-examine our policies at least as they affect the very young.

Dr. Mona is exposing much more than lead in the water. She is showing us a direction to live up to our creed that all people are equal and deserving of equal rights and protections under the law. Her book is a call for government to live up to its mandates and for citizens to make sure they do. Ultimately, Dr. Mona explains that she is a believer in the role of good government as opposed to extreme policies of austerity which are often short-sighted and basically unfair. I agree.

See Dr. Mona on the web.

UPDATE: Frontline Article July 25, 2018 about death toll from Flint Water Crisis, specifically from Legionnaire’s Disease.



Mark J. Hainds: The Border, It’s Not What You Think!

Mark Hainds Border Walk

Mark J. Hainds records his experiences on a 1,000 mile walk along the Texas – Mexico Border in a new travelogue: Border Walk.

Mark’s easygoing narrative is funny, educational, and relevant given current border issues in the U.S. and Mexico. Not only did he come through unscathed by border violence, but Mark illustrates the true nature of this culturally diverse region as quiet, rural and friendly. Even the big border towns of El Paso, Laredo, and Brownsville–maligned by tweeters and journalists as dangerous hell-holes–are shown to be relatively benign and mostly friendly. Mark gives statistics about the lower rates of crime in all three cities compared with past decades. While he does observe border-crossers, some with backpacks purportedly filled with illegal drugs, it is just a small aspect of the life of families, border patrol officers, and small business-owners along this infamous border.

Mark’s exceptional observations emanate from his knowledge of rural areas of America. He grew up on a small farm in Alabama the state where he resides with his wife and children, and where he served as a Research Associate at Auburn University and Research Coordinator of The Long Leaf Alliance. Mark is a forester, hunter, farmer and explorer.

The book is filled with stories of weird events and strange sights such as the business in the middle of nowhere that sells Prada shoes and bags. However, the merchandise if filled with tarantulas! It’s a spoof manufactured by some locals with a strange sense of humor who Mark later meets.

Mark notices the condition of the land and wildlife and shares his knowledge with us along the way. We are introduced to the ecology of the landscapes and its geology as he advances step by step over its contours. Usually walking about 20-25 miles a day, we learn about the daily toll that takes on feet, joints, and mental stamina. His support crew, the Compadres, are friends from around the country, some are naturalists, others outdoorsmen. When he is at his last ounce of energy– hot, tired and aching–they show up with a cold beer. Man, what a sight for sore eyes!

The Compadres come in waves to meet up with Mark, drive him to a hotel,  hot shower and deadman’s sleep.  These intrepid friends scout out the roads and trails, provided sustenance, and generally serve as a back-up crew. There are a lot of notable meals and merry-making along the way–much of it provided free by community people who are thrilled about Mark’s long walk and his interest in knowing the real communities and people who make up the U.S. – Mexico border region. After a while the Border Patrol and locals have already heard about the man walking the border, and they are ready with information, food, and offers to put him up for the night. The outpouring of friendliness is recorded in spades throughout the book. It makes you feel so good about the border people on both sides.

Why the differing attitudes on safety and life along the border? From my limited experience in the border cities, where the vast majority of the population resides, reality did not match up with perceptions held by the rest of the country. The statistics simply didn’t support the perceived threat. from Border Walk, p. 238

Mark shares data from an FBI report that lists four cities with the lowest crime rates in 2010: Phoenix, San Diego, El Paso, and Austin — all four border states! Mark does point out that people living along active smuggling corridors perceive crime to be very high. But these are far and few between the vast stretches of land that comprise most of the border region. He laughs at the thought of a border wall as he struggles to climb the peaks and plumb the valleys of remote regions where there are no viable roads needed to bring in materials to construct such a monstrosity.

Like the border areas, Mark’s book is quietly profound. In its readable pages, a general impression dawns slowly in the reader’s awareness: the border if NOT what we think it is. It’s a truly unique part of both countries, and families living along it go back and forth on a weekly basis sharing resources and appreciating each country’s food, language, and ways of life. A huge business exchange takes place all along the border, and its mostly not drugs.

Mark’s next book will continue the saga as he walks from the Texas to California border regions. On that segment I was privileged to be part of Mark’s support team in Southern Arizona along with my friend Tom. See Mark’s Facebook Page.

Mark Hainds, Border Walker